Author : Alexander Eitner

Reading Time: 5 minutes We live in a culture which suggests that impossible standards and physical beauty are the norm. Most of us feel too fat, too thin or too blemished to conform with Read more

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Reading Time: < 1 minute Many women have one breast bigger than the other – it is just as common as having one foot bigger than the other. Sometimes the difference is very noticeable, as Read more

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Reading Time: 5 minutes Almost all women have tender, painful breasts at some time during their life. If you suffer from regular pain, ask yourself these two important questions: is the pain related to Read more

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Reading Time: 2 minutes A red ‘sweat rash’ under the breasts is called intertrigo. It may be sore and itchy, and you may have it in your armpits as well. The rash has a Read more

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Reading Time: 3 minutes General Information The female breast contains glands supported by fat and fibrous tissue. The part of the gland that secretes milk and the structures that support it are known together Read more

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Reading Time: 5 minutes Genitourinary medicine clinics deal with sexually transmitted infections and many other genital and sexual problems. These clinics are sometimes called ‘GUM clinics’ for short. Many GUM clinics are now integrated Read more

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Reading Time: 3 minutes Sources of Wind There are three main sources of wind: Everyone’s gut contains gas because we cannot help swallowing air when we swallow food, when we drink and when we Read more

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Reading Time: 3 minutes Foods That Cause Flatulence Onions, tomatoes and mints actually relax the muscle at the lower end of the gullet, allowing air from the stomach to escape by belching. Farting is Read more

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Reading Time: 2 minutes Keep a Diary If you really want to get to grips with the problem, keep a diary of what and when you eat for a week. Also note when you Read more

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Reading Time: 4 minutes Poo is made of water, bits of food that could not be digested, dead cells from the lining of the intestines and dead bacteria – all the solids that the Read more

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Reading Time: 6 minutes If you think you have irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), you are not alone. More than 1 in 10 people are likely to have IBS at some time in their life. Read more

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Reading Time: 3 minutes Everyone experiences hiccups from time to time, especially after eating too much food or drinking too much alcohol. But some people get hiccups frequently for no apparent reason, and the Read more

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Reading Time: 9 minutes Bowel incontinence, also called faecal (fecal) incontinence or anal leakage, is the inability to control the bowels, resulting in the unplanned loss of liquid stool (diarrhoea), solid poo or flatulence Read more

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Reading Time: 3 minutes Occasional bouts of diarrhoea (diarrhea) are a fact of life – we have all experienced them. This section is for teenagers and adults with sudden-onset diarrhoea that lasts for less Read more

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Reading Time: 6 minutes We have all experienced episodes of acute diarrhoea (diarrhea) caused by a gut infection or by something we have eaten that disagrees with us: it usually clears up within a Read more

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Reading Time: 2 minutes Constipation is difficult to define, and what one person regards as constipation, another person may regard as normal. Some people think they are constipated if they do not have a Read more

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Reading Time: 2 minutes The causes of constipation are either primary or secondary. Primary causes include dietary factors, colonic motility (activity of movement), absorption of fluid in the colon, function of the anus and Read more

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Reading Time: 5 minutes Constipation in children is a common problem, and is not very easy for parents to deal with. The good news is that it usually clears up with time. Parents often Read more

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Reading Time: 2 minutes Alarm Signals Constipation is usually just a nuisance. There is no scientific evidence that ‘toxins’ from poo in the bowel can affect your health. However, very occasionally it is a Read more

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Reading Time: 3 minutes To understand constipation, it helps to know how the lower part of the gut works. The Colon The colon (large bowel) is the lower part of the gut. It is Read more

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Reading Time: 5 minutes There are four main ways of dealing with constipation: change your diet avoid dehydration take more exercise use a laxative. Change Your Diet Diet is very individual and what works Read more

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Reading Time: < 1 minute How well do you know your own body? To help you understand your body and the problems you may encounter, we are beginning a series of basic anatomy lessons, beginning Read more

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Reading Time: < 1 minute Nikki Kersey is a Community Sexual Reproductive Health (CSRH) specialty trainee doctor, based at the Liverpool Women’s Hospital and at Abacus Sexual Health Clinic. Nikki qualified from Leicester Medical School Read more

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Reading Time: < 1 minute Alice Llambias-Maw graduated from the University of Newcastle Medical School in 2019 and is currently a Foundation Year 2 doctor working at Warrington Hospital. Alice plans to pursue training in Read more

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Reading Time: < 1 minute Diane K. Newman, DNP, ANP-BC, FAAN, BCB-PMD is Adjunct Professor of Urology in Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania. She is Co-Director of the Penn Center for Continence Read more

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Reading Time: < 1 minute Ela Owen is a final-year medical student at The University of Liverpool. She is currently on placement at the Countess of Chester Hospital preparing for her first year of being Read more

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Reading Time: < 1 minute Dr David Rook is a specialty trainee in Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) based in Liverpool, Merseyside. Following his undergraduate medical degree at Barts and The London, David completed his Read more

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Reading Time: 2 minutes If you have symptoms such as persistent diarrhoea or a change in your bowel habits, or bleeding or mucus coming from your back passage, your doctor may recommend a test Read more

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Reading Time: 2 minutes It is sad that natural changes in the skin as we grow older are often considered unacceptable and embarrassing. In the USA alone, more than $12 billion is spent each Read more

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Reading Time: 2 minutes ‘Liver spots’ are like large freckles on the backs of the hands. They are sometimes also called ‘age spots’, but the medical term is solar lentigines. They may be up Read more

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Reading Time: 9 minutes Stop smoking. One study found that wrinkles are five times more likely in smokers than non-smokers. The skin on the face of a smoker aged 40 resembles that of non-smokers Read more

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Reading Time: < 1 minute As we get older, we often develop small skin tags. About 50–60% of people over the age of 50 have them. Sometimes they run in families. Their medical name is Read more

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Reading Time: 3 minutes What Is Acne? The skin is covered in hundreds of microscopic hair follicles, often known as pores, and many of these, especially on the face, neck, back and chest, are Read more

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Reading Time: < 1 minute If you are pregnant or intend to get pregnant, you and your doctor will have to consider your treatment options carefully, because many of the usual anti-acne treatments are not Read more

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Reading Time: 2 minutes Severe acne can leave scars. Some will fade with time, but many remain a permanent reminder of previous acne. Various treatments are available, but there are no completely satisfactory answers Read more

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Reading Time: 2 minutes Acne is caused by not washing properly. False. Washing is irrelevant, although over-washing, especially with abrasive products, can sometimes make the skin too sensitive to use anti-acne medications. Excess washing Read more

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Reading Time: 4 minutes Be patient. Acne improves slowly even with the most powerful treatments from your doctor. Do not expect much improvement in the first few weeks of any treatment. Do not pick! Read more

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Reading Time: 4 minutes See your doctor about acne Do not feel shy about seeing your doctor. Most doctors are now sympathetic and helpful to people with acne and recognize how much psychological distress Read more

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Reading Time: 3 minutes Normal hormone changes at puberty. A change in hormones occurs just before puberty in boys and girls. This is quite normal and results in an increase of sebum from the Read more

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Reading Time: 2 minutes What Is Urinary Incontinence? Incontinence is the unwanted or accidental leakage of urine from the bladder. Many refer to it as ‘loss of bladder control’, a ‘leaky bladder’ or a Read more

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Reading Time: 2 minutes Even if your incontinence cannot be cured completely, it need not make your life a misery. There are lots of equipment and services and equipment that can help. Your doctor, Read more

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Reading Time: 4 minutes Incontinence is leakage of urine from the bladder. It can happen to anyone at any age but is more common in women. The idea that it affects only the elderly Read more

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Reading Time: 2 minutes Function of the Kidneys and Bladder On average, about 1–2 litres (2–3.5 pints) of urine are produced by the kidneys every day. Most people do not feel an urge to Read more

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Reading Time: 4 minutes Incontinence (leakage of urine) is not just a women’s problem. Plenty of men have difficulty controlling their urine. 5% of men under 45 years of age have urinary incontinence. 10–20% Read more

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Reading Time: 6 minutes Your doctor or continence adviser may suggest any of the following options: Medication for Stress Incontinence If your main problem is stress incontinence, in Europe, there is now a specialist Read more

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Reading Time: 7 minutes You may think that if you have leakage of urine then you just have to put up with the problem, and perhaps spend a fortune on pads. This is not Read more

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Reading Time: 2 minutes Some women and men find it difficult to urinate in the presence of other men. They cannot urinate in a public toilet if anyone else is there. The muscles that Read more

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Reading Time: 2 minutes How Is Urine Made? Your urine is made by the kidneys and stored in the bladder. The kidneys act as a filter, draining the water and waste products from the Read more

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Reading Time: 3 minutes How well do you know your own body? To help you understand your body and the problems you may encounter, we are looking at the urinary system. The urinary tract Read more

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Reading Time: 4 minutes Prostate problems are common in men, particularly in men over 50 years of age. Do you have difficulty in starting to pass urine? Do you think it takes you too Read more

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